This is the first republication of the main oeuvre of the first Russian economist and mathematician Vladimir K. Dmitriev (1868—1913), «Economic Essays» (1904) that was acknowledged world-wide and has long become a classic of economics. In the West V.K. Dmitriev is recognized as the founder of neo-Ricardian economic, however, in Russia he remains one of the least known figures among the great economists of the past. Moreover, the book analyzes in detail the economic legacy of the “forgotten” Russian scientist, which is presented in the “essays”: the idea of interindustry balance, theory of production expenses and its relation to the fundamental problem of value, an original theory of competition, a non-standard genesis scheme of the theory of ultimate utility. Special attention is given to the recreation of Dmitriev’s unified world-view, as well as the fate of his ideas in the 20th century. Based on historical and textological analysis a new interpretation of the “Economic Essays” is presented, which allows to see how contemporary and topical Dmitriev’s work is. The volume is supplied with bibliographical and reference material.Addressed to experts in economic theory, lecturers on economic disciplines, historians of economic thought, philosophers, as well as everyone interested in economic science.